Hong Xuanjiao (洪宣娇) is believed to have been born around 1830. Sister of Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion, she was trained in martial arts and the commander of the female soldiers in service of the Taiping army. She was as being extraordinarily valiant, and as commanding hundreds of women.
Xianfeng three years (in 1853) at the end of spring, Hong Xiuquan issued an imperial edict, open a selection of scholars, this and previous greatly different, because “women”. Three days later, luoguxuantian, salvo, red Jinbang hanging in front of the palace of king, talented Fu Shanxiang best to obtain female division champion.
When the news came out, the sea and the earthquake. Is pay close attention to the Qing government and the Taiping Army in the civil war in China, the Western powers have, to champion Fu Shanxiang test also showed a great interest in, and even the western media exclaimed: Chinese farmers have to true awakening stage, women in, Eastern barbarians at least go to the same starting line with the people of the Western civilization.
This seems to indicate that the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom really achieved what he preached the “equality of men and women”, is the first woman to emancipate the mind. So that the vast majority of women’s liberation movement, before the October revolution in Russia, the history of the world has not had, is really the most glorious and most advanced movement of mankind “(Luo Ping,” the women of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom “).
Fan Wenlan was on how to evaluate the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom put forward a famous argument, that the “Taiping Revolution the greatest significance is that it is in the history of China for the first time put forward political, economic, ethnic, and four equal revolutionary movement”. Luo Ergang also hold similar views, that the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom “is the first practice of women’s emancipation of the mind. So that the vast majority of women’s liberation movement, in the October revolution in Russia, the world’s history, there is no, is really the most glorious of the most advanced sports”.
With the two reputation, especially Fan Wenlan set the tone, equality between men and women gradually become a mainstream point of view in evaluation of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the status of women in. In addition, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom also prohibited women’s foot binding, eliminate prostitution, implemented a female official system. Put aside its original intention or starting point not to talk, these ideas and initiatives undoubtedly commendable and in a certain period of time and to a certain extent, improve the part of the woman’s situation.
The summer of 2000 hit TV series “Taiping” is the focus on rendering this view. Hong xuanjiao, Fu Shanxiang, Su San Niang, a peerless beauty valiant and heroic image of women were created in the play. They not only rich integrity and righteous, and involved in confidential discuss in all events. The people with the women excelling in their profession and even the sense of yin and Yang.
However, on the basis of these scholars mostly “” awaken the Gangwon training “in” the world is more than men, the generation of full of brothers; the world more than women, full sister group. ” But Hong Xiuquan did not say “brothers” and “sisters” are equal, and even did not say “brother” is equal. In fact, under the control of the old historical inertia force, the majority of women’s subordinate status does not have any substantial changes. Both the official book of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan’s private writings never just requires women to accept the three from the four virtues of feudal education, forbid women more feudal morals deviate step.
In the “young school of poetry of a large number of foreign distribution of official book, outspoken claimed” the wife in three from, not contrary to the golf; pullet if crows, self seeking consist in the bitter “, in as many as five first’s father poem is filled with the king himself to the harem and women do not respect the language, thanks to write for the princekin, is indeed the king of the ten save poetry more throughout the preaching and isolation can not meet, even seven year old grandson will not meet with the grandmother,” justice “. These are with the traditional feudal male and female concept is identical, even more harsh.
Still in Hong Xiuquan, for example, he had the temperament with toe kicking pregnant goddess and the father to descend to the imperial edict “second. He also for their wives of deportment, set very harsh and overbearing ten rules: “serve the ungodly, the play; teach stiff necked and refused to listen to, the play; ordinary at her husband, three the; asked the king to the ungodly, four the play; static and impure gas impatient, the play; speech greatly, six of the play; beaked not answered, seven of the; love does not delight in eight of the; left eye at looking right. Nine of the; don ‘t talk leisurely, ten the.” In fact, in addition to the rod, “father” in the poem there will be after the goddess in the sky lanterns described Lin Yuan imposed torture. Thus, although according to Hong Xiuquan I say, he and his wives on religion, the significance of human relations is compatriots, the relationship between husband and wife, but in real life, each other is typical of the master and slave.
As for the female officer Fu Shanxiang limelight, more like the management of the administrator or the king’s house and the king’s house and the house of the maid, the female secretary.
In 1853, Hong Xiuquan declared: to Erchen, when men and women don’t. In the female internal affairs, the outside is not suitable to smell. This kind of male and female has the internal and external idea to run through the balance in the Heavenly Kingdom movement, it is the basic guiding ideology of the female official system. For female officer candidates and responsibilities, the father Xiafan rescript “said: If today toward and Di, (the kings) house of the female, the day of the incident very bitter, and not hero, loyal (martyrs) wife, is the hero, the loyal mother. Therefore, the female officer set is mainly to take better care of their families and families. British Fu Lici (R.J.Forrest) in the journey to the Tianjing to stem a female officer in the palace of a feudal prince noted: the belle in addition to any of the servants in the house of work, no other role.
The so-called Fu Shanxiang to calm the mind, deep eyes, in addition to helping Wang Dong processing of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom military affairs, more like exaggerated people by word of mouth. Even in the presence of a female officer in some knowledge, but also because of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the senior leadership of the mostly peasant origin, knowledge level is very low, need to read people to help deal with documents, and then the vast majority of men are fighting at the front bloody. Therefore, intellectual women bear when the female officer is the trend of the times.
But let the women have joined the Taiping Shi Ke test, although this did not get rid of the shackles of feudal etiquette what relation. From the point of view of the objective situation facing the Tianping heaven, since the Jintian uprising to Tianjing the fall, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom has been in unusually strong hostile forces besieged. The war frequently makes the Taiping army often in the situation of shortage of manpower, whether it is the military combat or logistics support work, all want women to participate in. It is not hard to understand the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom forbids women even footbinding, family planning.
But this does not mean the rising status of women in the military. “Wu generals Hong xuanjiao” does not exist in the history books, the archetype of Yang Xuanjiao suffered perhaps can from a side that women in the fate of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Hong Xiuquan in explaining their relationship with God, Hong Xiuquan is the God son, Jesus Christ, his brother, Feng Yun Shan, Yang Xiuqing, Wei Changhui the respectively is God of the third, the fourth and the fifth son, Yang Xuanjiao ranked sixth, her husband Xiao Chaogui is God a son-in-law of, Shi Dakai ranked seventh. It is this metaphysical kinship based, full name Yang Xuanjiao Hong Xiu Mei, said Xiao Zhaogui is the brother-in-law. Due to the origin of the term befuddled, folk unofficial history once the Yang Xuanjiao misrepresented as “Hong xuanjiao ‘, said she was a younger sister of Hong Xiuquan.
Yang Xuanjiao the Guangxi Guiping County redbud mountain of a peasant girl, very active after conversion to God, become the most famous female Christians worship God in, so local congregation has “was an ally of the male, woman Yang Xuanjiao,” one said. She was able to match with Hong Xiuquan, who is listed as the only child of God, whose status and prestige are self-evident.
However, is such a prestigious woman, also do not have to wait until the Jintian uprising, repeatedly to humiliate the, from the loss of the limelight. Although the Taiping literature did not elaborate, but there are still some clues. According to the load, Jiyou year December 18 (January 30, 1850) and Xiao Chaogui due to Yang Xuanjiao and Chen sister aunt sister-in-law relationship discord, fear Yang Xuanjiao “failed to abide by”, specially in the name brother days to descend to the world, told her to “refining of good. A few days after the day, brother and told Hong Xiuquan to “teach Xuanjiao”. After a lapse of soon, father Yang Xiuqing and personally to “no wish to boast high Zhang”, “non-compliance Tianling random words” charges, ordered the Yang Xuanjiao staff duty 60 plate, even in listening to her “chaos” kown people together also implicated. “Father” this poem wrote: “Zhao Ming as potential Fengtian, chaos words the listener without mercy.” “If you don’t obey fate, as all of your staff.”
Yang Xiuqing reason in uprising on the eve of the resolute to dispose of Yang Xuanjiao, except the factor of the conflict of interest, and the old idea of the increasingly expansion also has a great relationship, its purpose is to tame Yang Xuanjiao, don’t let her be so conceited, then convergence do not know. In the existing literature about the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Yang Xuanjiao after the uprising activities did not leave anything. The talented woman rash and too much in haste, has basically disappeared from sight.
From Best China News