子張第十九

Book XIX: Tsze-Chang

Chapter 1

   子張曰:“士見危致命,見得思義,祭思敬,喪思哀,其可已矣。”

Tsze-chang’s opinion of the chief attributes of a true scholar.
Tsze-chang said, “The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed.”

Chapter 2

  子張曰:“執德不弘,信道不篤,焉能爲有?焉能爲亡?”

Tsze-chang on narrow-mindedness and a hesitating faith.
Tsze-chang said, “When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?”

Chapter 3

  子夏之門人問交於子張。

子張曰:“子夏云何?”

對曰:“子夏曰:‘可者與之,其不可者拒之。’”

子張曰:“異乎吾所聞:‘君子尊賢而容眾,嘉善而矜不能。’我之大賢與,於人何所不容?我之不賢與,人將拒我,如之何其拒人也?”

The different opinions of Tsze-Hsiâ and Tsze-chang on the principles which should regulate our intercourse with others.
The disciples of Tsze-hsiâ asked Tsze-chang about the principles that should characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, “What does Tsze-hsiâ say on the subject?” They replied, “Tsze-hsiâ says: ‘Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so.'” Tsze-chang observed, “This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue? — who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue? — men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?”

Chapter 4

  子夏曰:“雖小道,必有可觀者焉。致遠恐泥,是以君子不爲也。”

Tsze-hsiâ’s opinion of the inapplicability of small pursuits to great objects.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “Even in inferior studies and employments there is something worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior man does not practice them.”

Chapter 5

  子夏曰:“日知其所亡,月無忘其所能,可謂好學也已矣。”

The indications of a real love of learning:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love to learn.”

Chapter 6

  子夏曰:“博學而篤志,切問而近思,仁在其中矣。”

How learning should be pursued to lead to virtue:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “There are learning extensively, and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:– virtue is in such a course.”

Chapter 7

  子夏曰:“百工居肆以成其事,君子學以致其道。”

Learning is the student’s workshop:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles.”

Chapter 8

  子夏曰:“小人之過也,必文。”

Glossing his faults the proof of the mean man:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “The mean man is sure to gloss his faults.”

Chapter 9

  子夏曰:“君子有三變:望之儼然,卽之也溫,聽其言也厲。”

Changing appearances of the superior man to others:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his language is firm and decided.”

Chapter 10

  子夏曰:“君子信而後勞其民,未信則以爲厲己也。信而後諫,未信則以爲謗己也。”

The importance of enjoying confidence to the right serving of superiors and ordering of inferiors:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him.”

Chapter 11

  子夏曰:“大德不踰閑,小德出入可也。”

The great virtues demand the chief attention, and the small ones may be somewhat violated:– Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues.”

Chapter 12

  子游曰:“子夏之門人小子,當洒埽、應對、進退,則可矣,抑末也。本之則無。如之何?”

子夏聞之曰:“噫!言游過矣!君子之道,孰先傳焉?孰後倦焉?譬諸草木,區以別矣。君子之道,焉可誣也?有始有卒者,其唯聖人乎?”

Tsze-hsiâ’s defence of his own graduated methos of teaching:– against Tsze-yû.
1. Tsze-yû said, “The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsiâ, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they are left ignorant of what is essential. — How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught?”

2. Tsze-hsiâ heard of the remark and said, “Alas! Yen Yû is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning?”

Chapter 13

  子夏曰:“仕而優則學,學而優則仕。”

The officer and the student should attend each to his proper work in the first instance:– by Tsze-hsiâ.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “The officer, having discharged all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an officer.”

Chapter 14

  子游曰:“喪致乎哀而止。”

The trappings of mourning may be dispensed with:– by Tsze-yû.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that.”

Chapter 15

  子游曰:“吾友張也,爲難能也,然而未仁。”

Tsze-yû’s opinion of Tsze-chang, as minding high things too much.
Tsze-hsiâ said, “My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous.”

Chapter 16

  曾子曰:“堂堂乎張也,難與並爲仁矣。”

The philosopher Tsang’s opinion of Tsze-chang, as too high-pitched for friendship.
The philosopher Tsang said, “How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practice virtue.”

Chapter 17

  曾子曰:“吾聞諸夫子:‘人未有自致者也,必也親喪乎!’”

How grief for the loss of parents brings out the real nature of man:– by Tsang Shan.
The philosopher Tsang said, “I heard this from our Master:– ‘Men may not have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on the occasion of mourning for their parents.”

Chapter 18

  曾子曰:“吾聞諸夫子:‘孟莊子之孝也,其他可能也;其不改父之臣與父之政,是難能也。’”

The filial piety of Mang Chwang:– by Tsang Shan.
The philosopher Tsang said, “I have heard this from our Master:– ‘The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father’s mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'”

Chapter 19

  孟氏使陽膚爲士師,問於曾子。

曾子曰:“上失其道,民散久矣。如得其情,則哀矜而勿喜。”

How a criminal judge should cherish compassion in his administration of justice:– by Tsang Shan.
The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fû to be chief criminal judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, “The rulers have failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized, for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability.”

Chapter 20

  子貢曰:“紂之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。”

The danger of a bad name:– by Tsze-kung.
Tsze-kung said, “Châu’s wickedness was not so great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him.”

Chapter 21

  子貢曰:“君子之過也,如日月之食焉。過也,人皆見之。更也,人皆仰之。”

The superior man does not conceal his errors, nor persist in them:– by Tsze-kung.
Tsze-kung said, “The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him.”

Chapter 22

  衞公孫朝問於子貢曰:“仲尼焉學?”

子貢曰:“文武之道,未墜於地,在人。賢者識其大者,不賢者識其小者,莫不有文武之道焉。夫子焉不學?而亦何常師之有?”

Confucius’s sources of knowledge were the recollections and traditions of the priciples of Wan and Wû:– by Tsze-kung.
1. Kung-sun Ch’âo of Wei asked Tsze-kung, saying. “From whom did Chung-nî get his learning?”

2. Tsze-kung replied, “The doctrines of Wan and Wû have not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wû. Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular master?”

Chapter 23

  叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰:“子貢賢於仲尼。”

子服景伯以告子貢。

子貢曰:“譬之宮牆。賜之牆也及肩,闚見室家之好。夫子之牆數仞,不得其門而入,不見宗廟之美,百官之富。得其門者或寡矣。夫子之云,不亦宜乎?”

Tsze-kung repudiates being thought superior to Confucius, and, by the comparison of a house and wall, shows how ordinary people could not understand the Master.
1. Shû-sun Wû-shû observed to the great officers in the court, saying, “Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-nî.”

2. Tsze-fû Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, “Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the apartments.

3. “The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.

4. “But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the observation of the chief only what might have been expected?”

Chapter 24

  叔孫武叔毀仲尼。

子貢曰:“無以爲也!仲尼不可毀也。他人之賢者,丘陵也,猶可踰也。仲尼,日月也,無得而踰焉。人雖欲自絕,其何傷於日月乎?多見其不知量也!”

Confucius is like the sun or moon, high above the reach of depreciation:– by Tsze-kung.
Shû-sun Wû-shû having spoken revilingly of Chung-nî, Tsze-kung said, “It is of no use doing so. Chung-nî cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-nî is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not know his own capacity.

Chapter 25

  陳子禽謂子貢曰:“子爲恭也!仲尼豈賢於子乎?”

子貢曰:“君子一言以爲知,一言以爲不知,言不可不愼也!夫子之不可及也,猶天之不可階而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所謂‘立之斯立,道之斯行,綏之斯來,動之斯和。其生也榮,其死也哀’, 如之何其可及也?”

Confucius can be no more equalled than the heavens can be climbed:– by Tsze-kung.
1. Ch’an Tsze-ch’in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, “You are too modest. How can Chung-nî be said to be superior to you?”

2. Tsze-kung said to him, “For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.

3. “Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.

4. “Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage’s rule:– he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him to be attained to?”

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