微子第十八

Book XVIII: Wei Tsze

Chapter 1

  微子去之,箕子爲之奴,比干諫而死。

孔子曰:“殷有三仁焉。”

The viscounts of Wei and Chî, and Pî-kan:– three worthies of the Yin dynasty.
1. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chî became a slave to Châu. Pî-kan remonstrated with him and died.

2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.”

Chapter 2

  柳下惠爲士師,三黜。

人曰:“子未可以去乎?”

曰:“直道而事人,焉往而不三黜?枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦?”

How Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, thought often dismissed from office, still clave to his country.
Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, “Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?” He replied, “Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?”

Chapter 3

  齊景公待孔子曰:“若季氏,則吾不能;以季、孟之間待之。”

曰:“吾老矣,不能用也。”

孔子行。

How Confucius left Ch’î, when the duke could not appreciate and employ him.
The duke Ching of Ch’î, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, “I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chî family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chî, and that given to the chief of the Mang family.” He also said, “I am old; I cannot use his doctrines.” Confucius took his departure.

Chapter 4

  齊人歸女樂。

季桓子受之,三日不朝。

孔子行。

How Confucius gave up official service in Lû.
The people of Ch’î sent to Lû a present of female musicians, which Chî Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.

Chapter 5

  楚狂接輿歌而過孔子曰:“鳳兮鳳兮!何德之衰?往者不可諫,來者猶可追。已而!已而!今之從政者殆而!”

孔子下,欲與之言。趨而辟之,不得與之言。

Confucius and the madman of Ch’û, who blames his not retiring from the world.
1. The madman of Ch’û, Chieh-yü, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, “O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government.”

2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yü hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.

Chapter 6

  長沮、桀溺耦而耕。孔子過之,使子路問津焉。

長沮曰:“夫執輿者爲誰?”

子路曰:“爲孔丘。”

曰:“是魯孔丘與?”

曰:“是也。”

曰:“是知津矣。”

問於桀溺。

桀溺曰:“子爲誰?”

曰:“爲仲由。”

曰:“是魯孔丘之徒與?”

對曰:“然。”

曰:“滔滔者,天下皆是也,而誰以易之?且而與其從辟人之士也,豈若從辟世之士哉?”

耰而不輟。

子路行以告。

夫子憮然曰:“鳥獸不可與同羣,吾非斯人之徒與而誰與?天下有道,丘不與易也。”

Confucius and the two recluses, Ch’ang-tsü and Chieh-nî; why he would not withdraw from the world.
1. Ch’ang-tsü and Chieh-nî were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lû to inquire for the ford.

2. Ch’ang-tsü said, “Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?” Tsze-lû told him, “It is K’ung Ch’iû.’, “Is it not K’ung Ch’iû of Lû?” asked he. “Yes,” was the reply, to which the other rejoined, “He knows the ford.”

3. Tsze-lû then inquired of Chieh-nî, who said to him, “Who are you, sir?” He answered, “I am Chung Yû.” “Are you not the disciple of K’ung Ch’iû of Lû?” asked the other. “I am,” replied he, and then Chieh-nî said to him, “Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?” With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.

4. Tsze-lû went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a sigh, “It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people, — with mankind, — with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.”

Chapter 7

  子路從而後,遇丈人,以杖荷蓧。

子路問曰:“子見夫子乎?”

丈人曰:“四禮不勤,五穀不分。孰爲夫子?”

植其杖而芸。

子路拱而立。

止子路宿,殺雞爲黍而食之,見其二子焉。

明日,子路行以告。

子曰:“隱者也。”

使子路反見之。至則行矣。

子路曰:“不仕無義。長幼之節,不可廢也。君臣之義,如之何其廢之?欲絜其身,而亂大倫。君子之仕也,行其義也。道之不行,已知之矣!”

Tsze-lû’s recontre with an old man, a recluse: his vindication of his master’s course.
1. Tsze-lû, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lû said to him, “Have you seen my master, sir?” The old man replied, “Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:– who is your master?” With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.

2. Tsze-lû joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.

3. The old man kept Tsze-lû to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

4. Next day, Tsze-lû went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, “He is a recluse,” and sent Tsze-lû back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.

5. Tsze-lû then said to the family, “Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that.”

Chapter 8

  逸民:伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱張、柳下惠、少連。

子曰:“不降其志,不辱其身,伯夷、叔齊與?”

謂柳下惠、少連:“降志辱身矣。言中倫,行中慮,其斯而已矣。”

謂虞仲、夷逸:“隱居放言,身中清,廢中權。我則異於是,無可無不可。”

Confucius’s judgment of former worthies who had kept from the world.
1. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-î, Shû-ch’î, Yü-chung, Î-yî, Chû-chang, Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and Shâo-lien.

2. The Master said, “Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons;– such, I think, were Po-î and Shû-ch’î.

3. “It may be said of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and of Shâo-lien, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.

4. “It may be said of Yü-chung and Î-yî, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.

5. “I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined.”

Chapter 9

  大師摯適齊,亞飯干適楚,三飯繚適蔡,四飯缺適秦,鼓方叔入於河,播鼗武入於漢,少師陽、擊磬襄入於海。

The dispersion of the musicians of Lû.
1. The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch’î.

2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch’û. Liâo, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts’âi. Chüeh, the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch’in.

3. Fang-shû, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.

4. Wû, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.

5. Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.

Chapter 10

  周公謂魯公曰:“君子不施其親,不使大臣怨乎不以。故舊無大故,則不棄也。無求備於一人。”

Instructions of Châu-kung to his son about government; a generous consideration of others to be cherished.
The duke of Châu addressed his son, the duke of Lû, saying, “The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment.”

Chapter 11

  周有八士:伯達、伯适、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、季隨、季騧。

The fruitfulness of the early time of the Châu dynasty in able officers.
To Châu belonged the eight officers, Po-tâ, Po-kwô, Chung-tû, Chung-hwû, Shû-yâ, Shû-hsiâ, Chî-sui, and Chî-kwa.

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