陽貨第十七

Book XVII: Yang Ho

Chapter 1

  陽貨欲見孔子,孔子不見。歸孔子豚。

孔子時其亡也,而往拜之。

遇諸塗。

謂孔子曰:“來!予與爾言。”曰:“懷其寶而迷其邦,可謂仁乎?”曰:“不可。——好從事而亟失時,可謂知乎?”曰:“不可。——日月逝矣,歲不我與。”

孔子曰:“諾,吾將仕矣。”

Confucius’s polite but dignified treatment of a powerful, but usurping and unworthy, officer.
1. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho was not at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on the way.

2. Ho said to Confucius, “Come, let me speak with you.” He then asked, “Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?” Confucius replied, “No.” “Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?” Confucius again said, “No.” “The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us.” Confucius said, “Right; I will go into office.”

Chapter 2

  子曰:“性相近也,習相遠也。”

The differences in the characters of men are chiefly owing to habit.
The Master said, “By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.”

Chapter 3

  子曰:“唯上知與下愚不移。”

Only two classes whom practice cannot change.
The Master said, “There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed.”

Chapter 4

  子之武城,聞弦歌之聲。

夫子莞爾而笑曰:“割雞焉用牛刀?”

子游對曰:“昔者,偃也聞諸夫子曰:‘君子學道則愛人,小人學道則易使也。’”

子曰:“二三子!偃之言是也。前言戲之耳。”

However small the sphere of government, the highest influences of proprieties and music should be employed.
1. The Master, having come to Wû-ch’ang, heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing.

2. Well pleased and smiling, he said, “Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?”

3. Tsze-yû replied, “Formerly, Master, I heard you say, — ‘When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.'”

4. The Master said, “My disciples, Yen’s words are right. What I said was only in sport.”

Chapter 5

  公山弗擾以費畔,召,子欲往。

子路不說,曰:“末之也已,何必公山氏之之也?”

子曰:“夫召我者,而豈徒哉?如有用我者,吾其爲東周乎?”

The lengths to which Confucius was inclined to go, to get his principles carried into practice.
1. Kung-shan Fû-zâo, when he was holding Pi, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.

2. Tsze-lû was displeased. and said, “Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Kung-shan?”

3. The Master said, “Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Châu?”

Chapter 6

  子張問仁於孔子。

孔子曰:“能行五者於天下,爲仁矣。”

“請問之?”

曰:“恭、寬、信、敏、惠。恭則不侮,寬則得眾,信則人任焉,敏則有功,惠則足以使人。”

Five things the practice of which constitutes perfect virtue.
Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, “To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue.” He begged to ask what they were, and was told, “Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.

Chapter 7

  佛肸召,子欲往。

子路曰:“昔者由也聞諸夫子曰:‘親於其身爲不善者,君子不入也’。佛肸以中牟畔,子之往也,如之何?”

子曰:“然,有是言也。不曰‘堅’乎?磨而不磷。不曰‘白’乎?涅而不緇。吾豈匏瓜也哉?焉能繫而不食!”

Confucius, inclined to respond to the advances of an unworthy man, protests against his conduct being judged by ordinary rules.
1. Pî Hsî inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.

2. Tsze-lû said, “Master, formerly I have heard you say, ‘When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.’ Pî Hsî is in rebellion, holding possession of Chung-mâu; if you go to him, what shall be said?”

3. The Master said, “Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black?

4. “Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?”

Chapter 8

  子曰:“由也,女聞六言六蔽矣乎?”

對曰:“未也。”

“居!吾語女。好仁不好學,其蔽也愚。好知不好學,其蔽也蕩。好信不好學,其蔽也賊。好直不好學,其蔽也絞。好勇不好學,其蔽也亂。好剛不好學,其蔽也狂。”

Knowledge, acquired by learning, is necessary to the completion of virtue, by preserving the mind from being beclouded.
1. The Master said, “Yû, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?” Yû replied, “I have not.”

2. “Sit down, and I will tell them to you.

3. “There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning;– the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct.”

Chapter 9

  子曰:“小子!何莫學夫《詩》?《詩》,可以興,可以觀,可以羣,可以怨。邇之事父,遠之事君,多識於鳥獸草木之名。”

Benefits derived from studying the Book of Poetry.
1. The Master said, “My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry?

2. “The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.

3. “They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.

4. “They teach the art of sociability.

5. “They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.

6. “From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one’s father, and the remoter one of serving one’s prince.

7. “From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants.”

Chapter 10

  子謂伯魚曰:“女爲《周南》、《召南》矣乎?人而不爲《周南》、《召南》,其猶正牆面而立也與?”

The importance of studying the Châu-nan and Shâo-nan.
The Master said to Po-yü, “Do you give yourself to the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan. The man who has not studied the Châu-nan and the Shâo-nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?”

Chapter 11

  子曰:“禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉!樂云樂云,鍾鼓云乎哉!”

It is not the external appurtenances which constitute propriety, nor the sound of instruments which constitute music.
The Master said, “‘It is according to the rules of propriety,’ they say. — ‘It is according to the rules of propriety,’ they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? ‘It is music,’ they say. — ‘It is music,’ they say. Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?”

Chapter 12

  子曰:“色厲而內荏,譬諸小人,其猶穿窬之盜也與!”

The meanness of presumption and pusillanimity conjoined.
The Master said, “He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;– yea, is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?”

Chapter 13

  子曰:“鄉原,德之賊也!”

Contentment with vulgar ways and views injurious to virtue.
The Master said, “Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue.”

Chapter 14

  子曰:“道聽而塗說,德之棄也!”

Swiftness to speak incompatible with the cultivation of virtue.
The Master said, “To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue.”

Chapter 15

  子曰:“鄙夫可與事君也與哉!其未得之也,患得之。旣得之,患失之。苟患失之,無所不至矣。”

The case of mercenary officers, and how it is impossible to serve one’s prince along with them.
1. The Master said, “There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one’s prince!

2. “While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.

3. “When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed.”

Chapter 16

  子曰:“古者民有三疾,今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆,今之狂也蕩。古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾。古之愚也直,今之愚也詐而已矣。”

The defects of former times become vices in the time of Confucius.
1. The Master said, “Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are not to be found.

2. “The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit.”

Chapter 17

  子曰:“巧言令色,鮮矣仁。”

See Book I Chapter III.
The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue.”

Chapter 18

  子曰:“惡紫之奪朱也,惡鄭聲之亂雅樂也,惡利口之覆邦家者。”

Confucius’s indignation at the way in which the wrong overcame the right.
The Master said, “I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang confound the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families.”

Chapter 19

  子曰:“予欲無言。”

子貢曰:“子如不言,則小子何述焉?”

子曰:“天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉。天何言哉?”

The actions of Confucius were lessons and laws, and not his words merely.
1. The Master said, “I would prefer not speaking.”

2. Tsze-kung said, “If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples, have to record?”

3. The Master said, “Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?”

Chapter 20

  孺悲欲見孔子,孔子辭以疾。將命者出戶,取瑟而歌,使之聞之。

How Confucius could be “not at home,” and yet give intimation to the visitor of his presence.
Zû Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door, (the Master) took his lute and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear him.

Chapter 21

  宰我問:“三年之喪,期已久矣。君子三年不爲禮,禮必壞;三年不爲樂,樂必崩。舊穀旣沒,新穀旣升,鑽燧改火,期可已矣。”

子曰:“食夫稻,衣夫錦,於女安乎?”

曰:“安。”

“女安,則爲之!夫君子之居喪,食旨不甘,聞樂不樂,居處不安,故不爲也。今女安,則爲之!”

宰我出。

子曰:“予之不仁也!子生三年,然後免於父母之懷。夫三年之喪,天下之通喪也。予也有三年之愛於其父母乎?”

The period of three years’ mourning for parents; it may not on any account be shortened; the reason of it.
1. Tsâi Wo asked about the three years’ mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough.

2. “If the superior man,” said he, “abstains for three years from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined.

3. “Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop.”

4. The Master said, “If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?” “I should,” replied Wo.

5. The Master said, “If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it.”

6. Tsâi Wo then went out, and the Master said, “This shows Yü’s want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years’ mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yü enjoy the three years’ love of his parents?”

Chapter 22

  子曰:“飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎?爲之猶賢乎已!”

The hopeless case of gluttony and idleness.
The Master said, “Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all.”

Chapter 23

  子路曰:“君子尚勇乎?”

子曰:“君子義以爲上。君子有勇而無義爲亂,小人有勇而無義爲盜。”

Valour to be valued only in subordination to righteousness; its consequences apart from that.
Tsze-lû said, “Does the superior man esteem valor?” The Master said, “The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness, will commit robbery.”

Chapter 24

  子貢曰:“君子亦有惡乎?”

子曰:“有惡。惡稱人之惡者,惡居下流而訕上者,惡勇而無禮者,惡果敢而窒者。”

曰:“賜也亦有惡乎?”

“惡徼以爲知者,惡不孫以爲勇者,惡訐以爲直者。”

Characters disliked by Confucius and Tsze-kung.
1. Tsze-kung said, “Has the superior man his hatreds also?” The Master said, “He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding.”

2. The Master then inquired, “Ts’ze, have you also your hatreds?” Tsze-kung replied, “I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward.”

Chapter 25

  子曰:“唯女子與小人爲難養也!近之則不孫,遠之則怨。”

The difficulty how to treat concubines and servants.
The Master said, “Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented.”

Chapter 26

  子曰:“年四十而見惡焉,其終也已!”

The difficulty of improvement in advanced years.
The Master said, “When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is.”

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