衞靈公第十五

Book XV: Wei Ling Kung

Chapter 1

   衞靈公問陳於孔子。

孔子對曰:“俎豆之事,則嘗聞之矣。軍旅之事,未之學也。”

明日遂行。

在陳絕糧。從者病,莫能興。

子路慍見曰:“君子亦有窮乎?”

子曰:“君子固窮,小人窮斯濫矣。”

Confucius refuses to talk on military affairs. In the midst of distress, he shows the disciples how the superior man is above distress.
1. The duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, “I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military matters.” On this, he took his departure the next day.

2. When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise.

3. Tsze-lû, with evident dissatisfaction, said, “Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?” The Master said, “The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license.”

Chapter 2

  子曰:“賜也,女以予爲多學而識之者與?”

對曰:“然。非與?”

曰:“非也!予一以貫之。”

How Confucius aimed at the knowledge of an all-pervading unity.
1. The Master said, “Ts’ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?”

2. Tsze-kung replied, “Yes, — but perhaps it is not so?”

3. “No,” was the answer; “I seek a unity all pervading.”

Chapter 3

  子曰:“由,知德者鮮矣!”

Few really know virtue.
The Master said, “Yû, those who know virtue are few.”

Chapter 4

  子曰:“無爲而治者,其舜也與!夫何爲哉?恭己正南面而已矣。”

How Shun was able to govern without personal effort.
The Master said, “May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat.”

Chapter 5

  子張問行。

子曰:“言忠信,行篤敬,雖蠻貊之邦行矣。言不忠信,行不篤敬,雖州里行乎哉?立則見其參於前也,在輿則見其倚於衡也,夫然後行。”

子張書諸紳。

Conduct that will be appreciated in all parts of the world.
1. Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere appreciated.

2. The Master said, “Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions honorable and careful;– such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful, and his actions not honorable and careful, will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighborhood?

3. “When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice.”

4. Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.

Chapter 6

  子曰:“直哉史魚!邦有道,如矢;邦無道,如矢。君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道,則仕;邦無道,則可卷而懷之。”

The admirable characters of Tsze-yû and Chü Po-yü.
1. The Master said, “Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yü. When good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad government prevailed, he was like an arrow.

2. “A superior man indeed is Chü Po-yü! When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in his breast.”

Chapter 7

  子曰:“可與言而不與言,失人。不可與言而與之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。”

There are men with whom to speak, and men with whom to keep silence. The wise know them.
The Master said, “When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to their words.”

Chapter 8

  子曰:“志士仁人,無求生以害仁,有殺身以成仁。”

High natures value virtue more than life.
The Master said, “The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete.”

Chapter 9

  子貢問爲仁。

子曰:“工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之賢者,友其士之仁者。”

How intercourse with the good aids the practice of virtue.
Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, “The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are living in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars.”

Chapter 10

  顏淵問爲邦。

子曰:“行夏之時,乘殷之輅,服周之冕,樂則《韶》、《舞》。放鄭聲,遠佞人。鄭聲淫,佞人殆。”

Certain rules, exemplified in the ancient dynasties, to be followed in governing:– a reply to Yen Yüan.
1. Yen Yüan asked how the government of a country should be administered.

2. The Master said, “Follow the seasons of Hsiâ.

3. “Ride in the state carriage of Yin.

4. “Wear the ceremonial cap of Châu.

5. “Let the music be the Shâo with its pantomimes.

6. “Banish the songs of Chang, and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; specious talkers are dangerous.”

Chapter 11

  子曰:“人無遠慮,必有近憂。”

The necessity of forethought and precaution.
The Master said, “If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand.”

Chapter 12

  子曰:“已矣乎!吾未見好德如好色者也!”

The rarity of a true love of virtue.
The Master said, “It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty.”

Chapter 13

  子曰:“臧文仲其竊位者與?知柳下惠之賢而不與立也。”

Against jealousy of others’ talents:– the case of Tsang Wan, and Hûi of Liû-hsiâ.
The Master said, “Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court.”

Chapter 14

  子曰:“躬自厚而薄責於人,則遠怨矣!”

The way to ward off resentments.
The Master said, “He who requires much from himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment.”

Chapter 15

  子曰:“不曰‘如之何,如之何’者,吾末如之何也已矣。”

Nothing can be made of people who take things easily, not giving themselves the trouble to think.
The Master said, “When a man is not in the habit of saying — ‘What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?’ I can indeed do nothing with him!”

Chapter 16

  子曰:“羣居終日,言不及義,好行小慧,難矣哉!”

Against frivolous talkers and superficial speculators.
The Master said, “When a number of people are together, for a whole day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;– theirs is indeed a hard case.”

Chapter 17

  子曰:“君子義以爲質,禮以行之,孫以出之,信以成之。君子哉!”

The conduct of the superior man is righteous, courteous, humble, and sincere.
The Master said, “The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man.”

Chapter 18

  子曰:“君子病無能焉,不病人之不己知也。”

Our own incompetency, and not our reputation, the proper business of concern to us.
The Master said, “The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men’s not knowing him.”

Chapter 19

  子曰:“君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。”

The superior man wishes to be had in remembrance.
The Master said, “The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death.”

Chapter 20

  子曰:“君子求諸己,小人求諸人。”

His own approbation is the superior man’s rule. The approbation of others is the mean man’s.
The Master said, “What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others.”

Chapter 21

  子曰:“君子矜而不爭,羣而不黨。”

The superior man is dignified and affable, without the faults to which those qualities often lead.
The Master said, “The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan.”

Chapter 22

  子曰:“君子不以言舉人,不以人廢言。”

The superior man is discriminating in his employment of men and judging of statements.
The Master said, “The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man.”

Chapter 23

  子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎?”

子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。”

The great principle of reciprocity is the rule of life.
Tsze-kung asked, saying, “Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one’s life?” The Master said, “Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.”

Chapter 24

  子曰:“吾之於人也,誰毀誰譽?如有所譽者,其有所試矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。”

Confucius showed his respect for men by strict truthfulness in awarding praise or censure.
1. The Master said, “In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.

2. “This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness.”

Chapter 25

  子曰:“吾猶及史之闕文也。有馬者借人乘之,今亡矣夫!”

Instances of the degeneracy of Confucius’s times.
The Master said, “Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things.”

Chapter 26

  子曰:“巧言亂德。小不忍則亂大謀。”

The danger of specious words, and of impatience.
The Master said, “Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans.”

Chapter 27

  子曰:“眾惡之,必察焉。眾好之,必察焉。”

In judging of a man, we must not be guided by his being generally liked or disliked.
The Master said, “When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case.”

Chapter 28

  子曰:“人能弘道,非道弘人。”

Priciples of duty an instrument in the hand of man.
The Master said, “A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man.”

Chapter 29

  子曰:“過而不改,是謂過矣!”

The culpability of not reforming known faults.
The Master said, “To have faults and not to reform them, — this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults.”

Chapter 30

  子曰:“吾嘗終日不食,終夜不寢,以思,無益,不如學也。”

The fruitlessness of thinking, without reading.
The Master said, “I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping:– occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to learn.”

Chapter 31

  子曰:“君子謀道不謀食。耕也,餒在其中矣。學也,祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。”

The superior man should not be mercenary, but have truth for his object.
The Master said, “The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is plowing;– even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning;– emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him.”

Chapter 32

  子曰:“知及之,仁不能守之,雖得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之,不莊以涖之,則民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,莊以涖之,動之不以禮,未善也。”

How knowledge without virtue is not lasting, and to knowledge and virtue a ruler should add dignity and the rules of propriety.
1. The Master said, “When a man’s knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again.

2. “When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.

3. “When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety:– full excellence is not reached.”

Chapter 33

  子曰:“君子不可小知而可大受也,小人不可大受而可小知也。”

How to know the superior man and the mean man; and their capacities.
The Master said, “The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in little matters.”

Chapter 34

  子曰:“民之於仁也,甚於水火。水火,吾見蹈而死者矣,未見蹈仁而死者也。”

Virtue more to man than water or fire, and never hurtful to him.
The Master said, “Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue.”

Chapter 35

  子曰:“當仁,不讓於師。”

Virtue personal and obligatory on every man.
The Master said, “Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher.”

Chapter 36

  子曰:“君子貞而不諒。”

The superior man’s firmness is based on right.
The Master said, “The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely.”

Chapter 37

  子曰:“事君,敬其事而後其食。”

The faithful minister.
The Master said, “A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration.”

Chapter 38

  子曰:“有教無類。”

The comprehensiveness of teaching.
The Master said, “In teaching there should be no distinction of classes.”

Chapter 39

  子曰:“道不同,不相爲謀。”

Agreement in principle necessary to concord in plans.
The Master said, “Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another.”

Chapter 40

  子曰:“辭,達而已矣!”

Perspicuity the chief virtue of language.
The Master said, “In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning.”

Chapter 41

   師冕見。

及階,子曰:“階也!”

及席,子曰:“席也!”

皆坐,子告之曰:“某在斯,某在斯。”

師冕出。

子張問曰:“與師言之道與?”

子曰:“然,固相師之道也。”

Consideration of Confucius for the blind.
1. The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, “Here are the steps.” When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said, “Here is the mat.” When all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, “So and so is here; so and so is here.”

2. The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang asked, saying. “Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?”

3. The Master said, “Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind.”

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