里仁第四

Book IV: Le Jin

Chapter 1

  子曰:“里仁爲美。擇不處仁,焉得知?”

Rule for the selection of a residence.
The Master said, “It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?”

Chapter 2

  子曰:“不仁者不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。”

Only true virtue adapts a man for the varied conditions of life.
The Master said, “Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue.”

Chapter 3

  子曰:“唯仁者能好人,能惡人。”

Only in the good man are emotions of love and hatred right, and to be depended on.
The Master said, “It is only the (truly) virtuous man, who can love, or who can hate, others.”

Chapter 4

  子曰:“苟志於仁矣,無惡也。”

The virtuous will preserves all from wickedness.
The Master said, “If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness.”

Chapter 5

  子曰:“富與貴是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤是人之所惡也,不以其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁。造次必於是,顛沛必於是。”

The devotion of the Chün-tsze to virtue.
1. The Master said, “Riches and honors are what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If it cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should not be avoided.

2. “If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name?

3. “The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it.”

Chapter 6

  子曰:“我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之。惡不仁者,其爲仁矣,不使不仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。”

A lament because of the rarity of the love of virtue; and encouragement to practice virtue.
1. The Master said, “I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person.

2. “Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.

3. “Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it.”

Chapter 7

  子曰:“人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。”

A man is not to be utterly condemned because he has faults.
The Master said, “The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a man’s faults, it may be known that he is virtuous.”

Chapter 8

  子曰:“朝聞道,夕死可矣!”

The importance of knowing the right way.
The Master said, “If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may die in the evening without regret.”

Chapter 9

  子曰:“士志於道而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!”

The pursuit of truth should raise a man above being ashamed of poverty.
The Master said, “A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with.”

Chapter 10

  子曰:“君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之與比。”

Righteousness is the rule of the Chün-tsze’s practice.
The Master said, “The superior man, in the world, does not set his mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will follow.”

Chapter 11

  子曰:“君子懷德,小人懷土。君子懷刑,小人懷惠。”

The different mindings of the superior and the small man.
The Master said, “The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may receive.”

Chapter 12

  子曰:“放於利而行,多怨。”

The consequence of selfish conduct.
The Master said: “He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage will be much murmured against.”

Chapter 13

  子曰:“能以禮讓爲國乎?何有!不能以禮讓爲國,如禮何!”

The influence in government of ceremonies observed in their proper spirit.
The Master said, “If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of propriety?”

Chapter 14

  子曰:“不患無位,患所以立。不患莫己知,求爲可知也。”

Advising to self-cultivation.
The Master said, “A man should say, I am not concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known.”

Chapter 15

  子曰:“參乎!吾道一以貫之。”

曾子曰:“唯。”

子出。

門人問曰:“何謂也?”

曾子曰:“夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。”

Confucius’s doctrine that of a pervading unity.
1. The Master said, “Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity.” The disciple Tsang replied, “Yes.”

2. The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, “What do his words mean?” Tsang said, “The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others, — this and nothing more.”

Chapter 16

  子曰:“君子喻於義,小人喻於利。”

How righteousness and selfishness distinguish the superior man and the small man.
The Master said, “The mind of the superior man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain.”

Chapter 17

  子曰:“見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。”

The lessons to be learned from observing men of different characters.
The Master said, “When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves.”

Chapter 18

  子曰:“事父母幾諫。見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。”

How a son may remonstrate with his parents on their faults.
The Master said, “In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur.”

Chapter 19

  子曰:“父母在,不遠遊;遊必有方。”

A son not ought to go to a distance where he will not be able to pay the due services to his parents.
The Master said, “While his parents are alive, the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to which he goes.”

Chapter 20

  子曰:“三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。”

On filial duty. See Book I, Chapter VI.
The Master said, “If the son for three years does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial.”

Chapter 21

  子曰:“父母之年,不可不知也。一則以喜,一則以懼。”

What effect the age of parents should have on their children.
The Master said, “The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear.”

Chapter 22

  子曰:“古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。”

The virtue of the ancients seen in their slowness to speak.
The Master said, “The reason why the ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions should not come up to them.”

Chapter 23

  子曰:“以約失之者,鮮矣。”

Advantage of caution.
The Master said, “The cautious seldom err.”

Chapter 24

  子曰:“君子欲訥於言而敏於行。”

Rule of the Chün-tsze about his words and actions.
The Master said, “The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct.”

Chapter 25

  子曰:“德不孤,必有鄰。”

The virtuous are not left alone:– an encouragement to virtue.
The Master said, “Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors.”

Chapter 26

  子游曰:“事君數,斯辱矣。朋友數,斯疏矣。”

A lesson to counsellors and friends.
Tsze-yû said, “In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant.”

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