爲政第二

Book II: Wei Chang

Chapter 1

  子曰:“爲政以德,譬如北辰居其所而眾星共之。”

The influence of virtue in a ruler.
The Master said, “He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”

 

Chapter 2

  子曰:“《詩》三百,一言以蔽之,曰‘思無邪’。”

The pure design of the Book of Poetry.
The Master said, “In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence — ‘Having no depraved thoughts.'”

 

Chapter 3

  子曰:“道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥。道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。”

How rulers should prefer moral appliances.
1. The Master said, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

2. “If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good.”

 

Chapter 4

  子曰:“吾十有五而志於學,三十而立, 四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七十而從心所欲,不踰矩。”

Confucius’s own account of his gradual progress and attainments.
1. The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

2. “At thirty, I stood firm.

3. “At forty, I had no doubts.

4. “At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

5. “At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

6. “At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right.”

Chapter 5

  孟懿子問“孝”。子曰:“無違。”

樊遲御。子告之曰:“孟孫問‘孝’於我,我對曰‘無違’。”

樊遲曰:“何謂也?”子曰:“生,事之以禮。死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。”

Filial piety must be shown according to the rules of propriety.
1. Mang Î asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient.”

2. Soon after, as Fan Ch’ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, “Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him, — ‘not being disobedient.'”

3. Fan Ch’ih said, “What did you mean?” The Master replied, “That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.”

Chapter 6

  孟武伯問孝。子曰:“父母唯其疾之憂。”

The anxiety of parents about their children an argument for filial piety.
Mang Wû asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.”

Chapter 7

  子游問孝。子曰:“今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養。不敬,何以別乎?”

How there must be reverence in filial duty.
Tsze-yû asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The filial piety nowadays means the support of one’s parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;– without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?”

Chapter 8

  子夏問孝。子曰:“色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以爲孝乎?”

The duties of filial piety must be performed with a cheerful countenance.
Tsze-hsiâ asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?”

Chapter 9

  子曰:“吾與回言終日,不違,如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發。回也不愚。”

The quiet receptivity of the disciple Hûi.
The Master said, “I have talked with Hûi for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;– as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hûi! — He is not stupid.”

Chapter 10

  子曰:“視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?”

How to determine the characters of men.
1. The Master said, “See what a man does.

2. “Mark his motives.

3. “Examine in what things he rests.

4. “How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?”

Chapter 11

  子曰:“溫故而知新,可以爲師矣。”

To be able to teach others one must from his old stores be continually developing things new.
The Master said, “If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others.”

Chapter 12

  子曰:“君子不器。”

The general aptitude of the Chün-tsze.
The Master said, “The accomplished scholar is not a utensil.”

Chapter 13

  子貢問君子。子曰:“先行其言而後從之。”

How with the superior man words follow actions.
Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, “He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions.”

Chapter 14

  子曰:“君子周而不比,小人比而不周。”

The difference between the Chün-tsze and the small man.
The Master said, “The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic.”

Chapter 15

  子曰:“學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。”

In learning, reading and thought must be combined.
The Master said, “Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.”

Chapter 16

  子曰:“攻乎異端,斯害也已。”

Strange doctrines are not to be studied.
The Master said, “The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!”

Chapter 17

  子曰:“由,誨女知之乎!知之爲知之,不知爲不知,是知也。”

There should be no pretense in the profession of knowledge, or the denial of ignorance.
The Master said, “Yû, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;– this is knowledge.”

Chapter 18

  子張學干祿。子曰:“多聞闕疑,愼言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,愼行其餘,則寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。”

The end in learning should be one’s own improvement, and not emolument.
1. Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

2. The Master said, “Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:– then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice:– then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument.”

Chapter 19

  哀公問曰:“何爲則民服?” 孔子對曰:“舉直錯諸枉,則民服。舉枉錯諸直,則民不服。”

How a prince by the right employment of his officers may secure the real submission of his subjects.
The Duke Âi asked, saying, “What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?” Confucius replied, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.”

Chapter 20

  季康子問:“使民敬、忠以勸,如之何?” 子曰:“臨之以莊,則敬。孝慈,則忠。舉善而教不能,則勸。”

Example in superiors is more powerful than force.
Chî K’ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them with gravity;– then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;– then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;– then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”

Chapter 21

  或謂孔子曰:“子奚不爲政?”子曰:“《書》云:‘孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。’是亦爲政,奚其爲爲政?”

Confucius’s explanation of his not being in any office.
1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?”

2. The Master said, “What does the Shû-ching say of filial piety? — ‘You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. these qualities are displayed in government.’ This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT — making one be in the government?”

Chapter 22

  子曰:“人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?”

The necessity to a man of being truthful and sincere.
The Master said, “I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?”

Chapter 23

  子張問:“十世可知也?”子曰:“殷因於夏禮,所損益,可知也。周因於殷禮,所損益,可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。”

The great principles governing society are unchangable.
1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsiâ: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Châu dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Châu, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known.”

Chapter 24

  子曰:“非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不爲,無勇也。”

Neither in sacrifice nor in any other practice may a man do anything but what is right.
1. The Master said, “For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

2. “To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage.”

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